The Southern Slope of the Acropolis was unquestionably in antiquity the most important religious centre, second only to the Sacred Rock itself. It was also the cultural nucleus of the city. It was here that the great sanctuaries of Dionysus Eleuthereus and Asclepius were established and the Theatre of Dionysus was developed, the oldest of its kind in the Hellenic world, where ancient Greek drama flourished. Over the centuries several other buildings of importance for the social and cultural life of the Athenians were added, such as the Odeon of Pericles, the Stoa of Eumenes and, much later, in Roman times, the Odeon of Herodes Atticus, the famous Herodion.

The Northern Slope of the Acropolis was also a reference point for the religious life of the city. It was the place where the secondary hypostases of the Olympian gods were mainly worshipped, as indicated by the presence of the Sacred Caves (dedicated to Pan, Olympian Zeus and Apollo Hypoakraios) and the Sanctuary of Aphrodite and Eros. In this area there were also the Mycenaean Fountain and the Spring of Klepsydra, which were of vital importance to the Acropolis and the wider region.